4) Rukooh:- a) Science : Insaan ki bending
position agar straight ho tau us
ko kabhi backbone main
kabhi problem nahi hoti
(Reerh ki haddi).
a) Namaz : Hum rukooh main bilkul straight kartay hain apni
kamar ko. b) Science : Ghutnoon ko
internal side per dabanay say
Bonemarrow ki growth hoti
hai aur Kabhi jooron
ki problem nahi hoti.
b) Namaz : Hum Rukoh main ghutnoon ko zoor say dabatay
5) Phir qayyam:- Science : Baar baar kamar ko
bend aur straight karnay say
backbone main agar koi
disbalancing problem ho tau
thek ho jaati hai.
Namaz : Hum Rukooh kay baad phir qayyam kartay hia. Sajda:- a) Science: Agar insaan doonon
aankhon say apni nose tip ko
daikhay tau us ki nazar barhti
hai agar kharab ho tau thek
hoti hai.
a) Namaz: Hum sajday main jab qayyam walay point ko
daikhtay hain tau hamari
doonon aankhain nose tip per
aa jaati hain. b) Science: Agar insaan apni
dody ko bend kar lay aur head
ko pairon kay level per lay
aye tau Blood flow poori body
main stable ho jata hai aur
blood barhna shoroh ho jaata hai.
b) Namaz : Halat-e-Sajda per
ghor karain , hum isi position
main bend hotay hain aur
hamara head hamaray feet
kay level per aa jaata hai.


Rajab Shaban and Ramdhan are the months of great Fazilath

Rajab Shaban and Ramdhan are the months of great Fazilath. Mohammad Sallallah -u-Alehi Wa Alehi Wa Sallam(P.B.U.H) said “That the month of Rajab is very great and no other month could reach to the Ihtheram (respect) and Fazilath of this month. Battle with kuffar is haram in this month. Rajab is Allah’s month. Shaban is my month and Ramadhan is my Ummah’s month. Whoever fasts for a day in this month Allah will keep Azaab ( punishment ) away from him and he will please Allah, and one of the many doors of hell will be closed on him”.
Imam Mose-E-Kazim (A.S) said that whoever fasts for a day in Rajab the fire of hell will be kept away from him for at least the distance of a year. And if a person fasts for three days then Jannath (Heaven) will be wajib on him.
Rasule-Khuda (peace be upon him) said That Rajab is a name of a stream in Heaven, which is whiter than milk and sweeter than honey. And if any person fasts for a day in this month he will drink water from this stream.
Imam Jafar-E-Sadiq (A.S) said that Rasule-Khuda (peace be upon him) said that this month of Rajab is the month of Asthaqgfar for my Ummah. Thus ask for Allah’s forgiveness for our sins in this Mubarak month. Allah is most forgiving and most merciful. And the other name for Rajab is Asabb because Allah’s Rehmath on Ummah is more in this month, so one should recite Astaghfirullah Wa Asalhut Tawbah a lot.
Imam Jafar-E-Sadiq (A.S) said whoever keeps one fast in the last days of Rajab, Allah will save him from the hardship of dying (sakrath-e-moth) and from azaab-e-moth. And if a person fasts on the last two days of Rajab, he will pass Pul-E-Sirath with ease. And if a person fasts on the last three days he will be saved from the khawf of Qayamath and hardships of this day and will be saved from hell.
Imam Zainul Abideen (A.S) said if a person cannot keep fast in this month he should recite the following Tasbeeh—–
Subhan-al illahil Jaleeli Subhana mal-la yanbaghit tasbeehu illa lahu Subhanal a-aazzil akrami subhana mal laisal izza wa-hua- lahu ahl.

Important Dates in—

1st Rajab — Wiladat of Imam Mohammed Baqir(A.S)
3rd Rajab — Shahadat of Imam Ali-Un-Naqi (A.S)
10th Rajab—Wiladat of Imam Ali-Un Naqi (A.S)
13th Rajab— Wiladat of Imam Ali-Ibn-Abi Talib (A.S)
15th Rajab— Shahadat Bibi Zainab (S.A)
24th Rajab— Fateh Khaiber
25th Rajab— Shahadat of Imam Muse-E-Kazim (A.S)
26th Rajab— Wafat Janab Abu Talib (A.S)
27th Rajab— Shab-E-Meraj
28th Rajab— Safar Imam Hussain (A.S)
28th Rajab– Wafat Hazrath Khatijah ( A.S)

Amaal For The Month Of Rajab:

There are many Duas and Amaals in the month of Rajab.I am mentioning a few. If you want a detailed account of the Aamaals you can refer to Mafati-Hal-Jinnah. printed in
** Daily aamaal:
1 – Recite dua ‘Yaa man arjoohu’ after every namaz. (Scroll down for the dua )
2 – Recite Salawaat at least 35 times daily.
3 – Offer 2 Rakat namaz every night. In each rakat, after Suratal Fateha, recite Suratal Kafiroon 3 times and Suratal Ikhlaas once.
4 – Do Istighfaar (ask for forgiveness) and then give Sadaqa (charity).
5 – Fasting on Thursday, Friday & Saturday (3 consecutive days) may earn sawaab of 900 years of ibaadat (worship).
6 – Fast on 1st of Rajab and recite Ziarate Waritha on 1st night & day.
7 – Fast on Mondays.
8 – Perform ghusl on 1st, 15th and last days.
9 – Recite namaze shab as often as possible.
10 – Recite “Laa ilaaha illallah” as often as possible. (At least 100
times everyday)

It is of great Fazilath to do Umra in this month.

Prophet Muhammad’s (s.a.w) Last Sermon

(This Sermon was Delivered on the Ninth Day of Dhul Hijjah 10 A.H. in the Uranah Valley of Mount Arafat)


O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I don’t know whether, after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.

O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived…

Beware of Satan, for your safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.

O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have right over you. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and comitted helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to commit adultery.

O People, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers (salah), fast during the month of Ramadhan, and give your wealth in zakat. Perform hajj if you can afford to. You know that every Muslim is the brother of another Muslim. You are all equal. Nobody has superiority over other except by piety and good action.

Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer for your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.

O People, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand my words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qur’an and my example, the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.

All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness O Allah that I have conveyed your message to your people.


Fatimah SWT is the only daughter of the Prophet of Islam SAWS. Our Lady’s mothers name is Lady Khadijah (R.A) the first wife of the Prophet SAWS. The only wife in whose lifetime the Prophet SAWS never married again. Holy Fatimah (SWT) is the wife of the Lion of Allah Imam Ali A.S. She is the mother of Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain A.S (The Chiefs of the youth of Heaven), Lady Zenab (SWT), Lady Umme Kulsum (SWT) and Prince Mohsin (The child who was killed by the sword of a muslim). Holy Fatimah (SWT) is also the ancestrol mother of 9 other Imams of the Holy Household. She is also among the five in the `Panjtan Pak’. Her appelations include `Zahra’ and `Sayyidatin Nisa’ (Chief of the Women). Her fillial appelations include `Umme Abiha’ (Mother of Imam Hussain and Imam Hassan A.S), Umme Sibtain and Ummul Iima (Mother of Imams).

The light of Holy Fatimah’s existence was made with that of the Holy Prophet SAWS much before the creation of the Universe. However visible existence came into being on 20th Jamad us Sani (5th year after the declaration of Prophethood) on friday. The year was 615 A.D. At the time of our lady’s birth there were heavenly nymphs and pure women who descended from heaven to carry out the duty of delivery. These pious and pure women included:
— Lady Mariam daughter of Imran (mother of the Prophet Jesus)
— Asia daughter of Mauzahim 
— Safoora daughter of Shoaib
— Kulsum sister of the Prohet Moses
Lady Khadijah on account of the delivery shows that as she had married without the consent of her tribe with the Prophet SAWS. The tribe had done a total boycott of her. However with the grace of Allah heavenly nymphs and pure and pious women did the delivery of our Lady fatimah SWT.

Fatimah SWT only Female Child 
It is an established fact that the Lady Fatimah (SWT) and Prince Qasim Abdullah were from Hazrat Khadijah and the Holy Prophet SAWS. The difference arises between Shia and other sects that the Prophet SAWS had other daughters which were Zainab, Rukkya (Wife Hazrat Usman) and Umme Kulsum. It is a known truth that these three daughters were wedded to pagans. The names of which include Abul Aas bin Rabi. Refrence is available from Masudi’s accounts. However this above information is incorrect. The Prophet of Islam would never marry his daughters into the pagans. These three daughters were actually the nieces of the Lady Khadijah (R.A). However as Lady Khadijah was a woman of dignity and high calibre, she treated her nieces gently and lovingly as though they were her own daughters. These nieces were called daughters of the Holy Prophet SAWS as Zaid was called his son. However in actual fact they were not Holy Prophet’s (SAWS) children. When the Holy Prophet SAWS married Lady Khdijah at that time the Holy Prophet’s age was 25 years. It is unanimously accepted that the Prophet SAWS had no children till the age of 30. It is also accepted that these three daughters were married before the revelations came. This means that the Holy Prophet SAWS in 10 years had three daughters married and also married them of. Certainly this is illogical and impossible. This proves that the Prophet SAWS had just two children. Qasim Abdullah (Died in Infancy) and Our Lady Fatimah(SWT).

Early life and Trainning
Our Lady was totally different from the rest of the girls of that age. Umme Salma was asked to teach Our Lady principles of Culture. However Umme Salma replied that what could she teach the model of purity and chastity and I myself would take knowledge and teaching from this Baby girl. Books written by various writers indicates that Our Lady’s entire young age was spent serving her parents and praying to the All Mighty Allah.

Oneday when the Prophet SAWS was praying in the courtyard of the Holy Kaaba. The accursed AbuJahl (Uncle of Hazrat Umar) saw the Prophet in prostration to Allah. He put a tripe laden with compost of the camel on the Holy Prophet’s back. When the news of this act reached the Holy Fatimah (SWT) she came running and removed the tripe of the Prophet of Islam’s Back. Then washed the Holy back with water. On this occasion the Prophet (SAWS) said:

“Daughter! One day these enemies will be subdued and the lord will give my religion utmost superamacy.”
It has been reported that Lady Khadijah (R.A) was preparing to go to a wedding. When she started to put her clothes on she was informed that Our lady had no clothes. This made Lady Khadijah (R.A) to be worried but when Our Lady got to know about her mother’s anxiety that her daughter had no clothes. Our lady Fatimah (SWT) said : “Dear Mother! I will go wearing old clothes, because father dearest says that the best jewellery for muslims girls is life of piety and absitence and the best decoration is modesty and bashfulness.”

Lady Fatimah (SWT) system of work 
After going to His Holiness (Imam Ali (A.S)) house. Our Lady Fatimah (SWT) established such a system that is a model for all the women of the world to follow. Her Holiness (SWT) did all the household work alone. The work included cooking food, weaving, grinding the flour by the use of a handmill, sweeping and Trainning the two young Holy Imams Hassan (A.S) and Imam Hussain (A.S) and the two princesses Her Holiness Lady Zenab (SWT) and Her Holiness Lady Umme Kulsum (SWT). All these works our Queen used to do but never was there a change Her Holiness’s temprament nor did Her Holiness (SWT) ever complaint to Imam Ali (A.S).Her Holiness Lady Fatimah (SWT) never asked for a slave girl. However when Our Lady (SWT) was given a maid in the 7th year of Migration of the Holy Prophet (SAWS) from Mecca to Medina. Her Holiness (SWT) treated the servant not as a servant but as if a close friend and associate. Oneday Our Lady (SWT) used to do the chores of the house and the next day Lady Fizza (The Maid of Her Holiness Lady Fatimah SWT) used to do the work. Hence the system was of taking turns at doing the work of the House. This system adopted by Her Holiness (SWT) made Lady Fizza feel like a part of the House and not as a servant. Actually this was a true example of the House of the Prophet (SAWS) system of equality.

Fatimah (SWT) and The Islamic Dress 
Our Lady Fatimah (SWT) has explained clearly the acme of the Women. These acmes are staying indoors and obeserving the Islamic Dress. The Islamic dress code of wearing a veil and wearing such a dress which protects a women’s honour and beauty from the gaze of male strangers. Today we see that by not observing the Islamic dress code muslim women open themselves to the lust of many unscruplous men.

Time has revealed to us that the Ahlul Bait (A.S) (House of the Prophet SAWS) has always tried to protect the humans especially the muslims from disasters caused by the people’s own wrong doings.

The Holy Lady (A.S) who was well aware of these Islamic principles practiced these Islamic fundmentals most strongly. Her Holiness stayed indoors, wore a veil and maintained utmost privacy. In Her Holiness’s house was a door which opened into the mosque of the Holy prophet (SAWS). Despite having this facility Her Holiness never joined congregational prayers behind the Holy Prophet (SAWS) inside the courtyard of the mosque. When the Holy Prophet (SAWS) used to give advice or lectures in the courtyard of the Mosque of the Prophet (SAWS) , Our Lady (SWT) still never came into the courtyard of the Mosque. Once it happened that His Holiness The Prophet (SAWS) put a question to His Holiness companions who were present in the courtyard of the mosque. The Question was as follows:

“What is the best thing for a woman?”
When Our Lady Fatimah (SWT) was infromed of this question . Her Holiness replied that the best thing for a women is that her glance never falls on a male stranger and the glance of a male stranger does not fall on her

When this answer reached The Holy Prophet (SAWS), His Holiness was rejoiced and said:

“—-Fatimah (SWT) is a part of me (His Holiness The Prophet of Islam (SAWS)”.
Ibn Al-Maghazili mentions in his book Manaqib that (His Holiness) Ali ibn Al-Hussain ibn Ali (A.S) said:

“Once a blind man asked for permission to enter Fatima’s (Her Holiness) house
but she kept a veil between them. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) noticed her
(Our Lady Fatimah (SWT)) actions and asked:
`Why did you (Her Holiness(SWT)) keep a veil between you (Her Holiness (SWT))
when he cannot see you?”
Her Holiness Fatimah (SWT) answered :` Messanger of Allah, it is true that
he cannot see me (Her Holiness (SWT)), but I (Her Holiness (SWT)) can see
him and he can smell my (Her Holiness (SWT)) fragrance.’
At this, the Prophet (SAWS) said : “I bear witness that you are part of me”.
(Book `Fatimah the Gracious’ Pg 187)

Death of the Holy Lady (sa)
After the death of Holy Prophet (saw), people disobeyed the will and advices of Holy Prophet (saw). They collected themselves and elected a caliph amongst them inspite of explicit announcement of Imam Ali’s (as) vicegrency by Holy Prophet (saw) duing his last Hajj. People came to Bibi Fatima’s house to forcefully take oath from Imam Ali (as). When she denied from behind the door, people who wanted the oath pushed the door such that it fell on the Holy Lady Fatima (saw) and then crossed over the door, while the Holy Lady was below the door. The door also had a nail which pierced the Holy lady’s body. The child in her womb died because of this atrocious incident. The caliph of that time snatched the land of Fadak which Holy Prophet (saw) gifted in His life. People closed their doors on the Holy households of Prophet (saw). All such events made Bibi Fatima (saw) weaker day by day and she passed aways within an year after the death of her father.


A Brief History of the Prophet”s Life


The oldest and noblest tribe in the whole of Arabia was Banu Hashim. They were the descendants of Ibrahim through his son Isma”il. The Arabs respected and loved them for their goodness, knowledge and bravery.


Abd al-Muttalib was the chieftain of Banu Hashim and he was also the Guardian of the Ka”bah. Among his ten sons, “Abdullah was the father of the Holy Prophet.

In Mecca, baby boy muhammad was born on 17th Rabi” al-Awwal, 570 AD.His father “Abdullah, son of “Abd al-Muttalib, died before he was born and when he was six, he lost his loving mother Aminah bint Wahab.His Grandfather, “Abd al-Muttalib, took the responsibility of bringing up the orphan. At the age of ten, he was berefted of his venerable grandfather.On his deathbed, he appointed his son Abu Talib as the guardian of muhammad.Gentle, soft spoken, tall and handsome boy, muhammad, accompanied the trading caravans of Abu Talib, across the deserts, giving him deep insight into nature and man.


The wealthy noble widowed lady Khadijah, looking for a manager for her rich merchantile caravans, selects muhammad, the Trustee. Able and fair dealing,muhammad is a tremendous success. Khadijah already an admirer, made him an offer of marriage. muhammad was twenty five and Khadijah forty. In spite of this disparity in age, the marriage proved to be a very happy one.


Lover of nature and quite worrried about human sufferings, muhammad very often retired to Mount Hira” for meditations. One night, Laylat al-Qadr (the Night of Majesty) a voice addressing him, commanded “Recite in the name of thy Lord.” Deeply excited by the strange phenomena of Divine Visitation,muhammad hurried home to his wife, Khadijah, who listened to him attentively and said that “I bear witness that you are the Apostle of God.” After an interval, the voice from heaven spoke again “O thou shrouded in thy mantle, arise, and warn, and magnify thy Lord.”

This was a signal for him to start preaching the gospel of truth of One God. In the beginning muhammad invited only those near him, to accept the new Faith. The first to embrace Islam among women was Khadijah and among men “Ali. Soon after, Zayd ibn al-Harithah became a convert to the new Faith.

For three long years, he laboured quietly to wean his people from the worship of idols and drew only thirty followers. muhammad then decided to appeal publicly to the Quraysh to give up idol worship and embrace Islam.The new Faith, is simple without complications, practical and useful for everyday life. It commands to believe and do good, keep up prayer and pay the poorrate, two orders giving four principles of a successful way of life.Almost ten years of hard work and preaching, in spite of all persecution,produced over a hundred followers, physical cruelties and social boycott made life unbearable in Mecca. The Holy Prophet of Islam advised his followers, to seek refuge in the to seek refuge in the neighbouring country of Ethiopia. Eighty eight men and eighteen women sailed to the hospitable shores of the Negus, under the leadership of Ja”far at-Tayyar (brother of “Ali) and the cousin of the Holy Prophet.

several times the chieftains came to Abu Talib saying, “We respect your age and rank, but we have no further patience with your nephew. Stop him or we shall fight you.” Abu Talib asked muhammad for his decision.With tears in his eyes, the Apostle firmly replied, “O my uncle! If they place the sun on my right hand and the moon on my left, to force me to renounce my mission, I will not desist until God manifests His cause or I perish in the attempt.”


In a period of troubles, trials and tribulations two major tragedies afflicted muhammad. First the venerable guardian uncle Abu Talib died and shortly afterwards his noble wife Khadijah died, leaving behind her daughter Fatimah (peace be on her) – the only child she had from the Holy Prophet – the daughter who looked after her father so much so that the prophet called her Umm Abiha (the mother of her father).


With the death of the old patriarch Abu Talib, the Meccans planned to assassinate the prophet. Under Divine guidance, he asked “Ali to sleep in his bed and muhammad put his green garment on “Ali. While the murderes mistook “Ali for muhammad, the Holy Prophet of Islam escaped to Medina.

The Muslim era of Hijrah (Emigration) is named after this incident and dated from 17th Rabi” al-Awwwal, 622 AD.

From the time he came to Medina, he was the grandest figure upon whom the light of history has ever shone. We shall now see him as the King of men, the ruler of human hearts, chief law-giver and supreme judge.The Preacher who went without bread, was mightier than the mightiest sovereigns of the earth. No emperor with his tiaras was obeyed, as this man in a cloak of his own clothing.

He laid the foundation of the Muslim commonwealth and drew up a charter which has been acknowledged as the work of highest statemanship, a master-mind not only of his age, but of all ages.

Unlike the Arabs, the Prophet, had never wielded a weapon, but now he was forced to defend Islam by force of arms. Commencing from the battle of Badr,a series of eighty battles had to be fought, which the infant commmunity defended successfully.


Next year, Abu Sufyan, the famous long-lived enemy of Islam, again attacked the Muslims at Uhud. Hamzah, the first flag-bearer of Islam and uncle of the Prophet, was killed in action. In spite of strict instructions from the Prophet, a few Muslim soldiers deserted their post,when victory was in sight. This changed the course of the battle. Khalid ibn al-Walid attacked the Prophet and the grave situation was saved by the timely arrival of “Ali. The enemies ran away and the issue was decided. muhammad was deeply grieved at the death of Hamzah.


The Muslims had been in self exile for six years and began to feel a keen yearning for their homeland, Mecca. The Prophet desired to perform a pilgrimage to Ka”bah. When he forsook his home town he was weak, but when he wanted to return, he was strong. He did not use his strength to force an entry into the sacred city. Finding the Quraysh hostile, muhammad entered into a treaty Known as the Peace of Hudaybiyyah, appearing not very advantageous to the Muslims, but which revealed the Islamic character of moderation and magnanimity. For the strong to excercise restraint and toleration is true courage. Having reached upto the door of their birth place with hearts over-flowing with impatient longing to enter it, the Muslims retraced their steps peacefully to Medina, under the terms of the treaty, which allowed them to perform the pilgrimage next year.


In The 8th year AH, the idolators violated the peace of Hudaybiyyah by attacking the Muslims. The enemies were defeated and Mecca was conquered.The Prophet who fled from Mecca as a fugitive, now returned home as a mighty conqueror. The Rahmatun lil “Alamin (mercy unto all beings, i.e., the Prophet) entered the city with his head bowed low in thankfulness to the Almighty (Allah) and ordered a general amnesty, instead of the mass massacre of those who persecuted him and his followers.


A great number of Muslim soldiers were killed in battles at Badr, Uhud,Khaybar, Hunayn and other places, leaving behind young wives and children. The serious problem of taking care of the widows and orphans, threatened to break up the moral fabric of the Muslim Society. muhammad decided to marry these widows and set an example for his followers to do likewise.


Under the Divine intuition of his approaching end, muhammad prepared to make the farewell pilgrimage to Mecca.Before completing all the ceremonies of Hajj, he addressed a huge multitude from the top of mount “Arafat on 8th Dhi al-hijjah, 11 AH,in words which shall ever ring and live in the atmosphere.

After finishing the hajj the Holy Prophet started for Medina. On his way, at Ghadir Khumm the Voice from Heaven cried: “O Apostle! deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message and Allah will protect you from the people, surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people. (5:67) muhammad immediately ordered Bilal to recall the Muslims, who had gone ahead,who were behind and who were proceeding to their homes at the junction, to assemble. The famous Sunni mutakallim and commentator, Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi in his At-Tafsir al-Kabir, vol. 12, pp. 49-50, writes that the Prophet took “Ali by the hand and said: “Whoever whose mawla (master) I am, “Ali is his master. O Allah! Love him who loves “Ali, and be the enemy of the enemy of “Ali; help him who helps “Ali, and forsake him who forsakes “Ali.”


On muhammad”s return to Medina, he got busy settling the organization of the provinces and the tribes which had adopted Islam. His strength rapidly failed and the poison (administered at Khaybar by a Jewess) took its deadly toll. So ended the life dedicated to the service of God and humanity from first to last, on 28th Safar, 11 AH.

The humble Preacher had risen to be the ruler of Arabia. The Prophet of Islam not only inspired reverence, but love owing to his humility,nobility, purity, austerity, refinement and devotion to duty.

The Master inspired all who came into contact with him. He shared his scanty food; he began his meals in the Name of Allah and finished them uttering thanks;he loved the poor and respected them; he would visit the sick and comfort the heart broken; he treated his bitterest enemies with clemency and forbearance,but the offenders against society were administered justice; his intellectual mind was remarkably progressive and he said that man could not exist without contant efforts.

There is no god but One God and muhammad is the Apostle of God, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and his descendants.


Name: Al Hujjat Muhammad ibn al-Hasan (a.s.)

Mother: Ummul Walad Narjis alias Saiqal

Kunniyat (Patronymic): Abu ‘Abdullah, Abu al-Qasim

Laqab (Title): Al-Qaim, Al-Muntazar, Al-Khalaf, Al-Mahdi, Sahib al-zamaan.

BirthHe was born at Samarrah in the year 255 A.H. He is the last Imam (a.s.) and he is alive and hidden.


The promised Mahdi, who is usually mentioned by his title of Imam-i ‘Asr (the Imam of the “Period”) and Sahib al-Zaman (the Lord of the Age), is the son of the eleventh Imam. His name is the same as that of the Holy Prophet (sawas). He was born in Samarrah in 256/868 and until 260/872 when his father was martyred, lived under his father’s care and tutelage. He was hidden from public view and only a few of the elite among the Shi’ah were able to meet him. After the martyrdom of his father he became Imam and by Divine Command went into occultation (ghaybat). Thereafter he appeared only to his deputies (na’ib) and even then only in exceptional circumstances.

The Imam chose as a special deputy for a time Uthman ibn Sa’id ‘Umari, one of the companions of his father and grandfather who was his confidant and trusted friend. Through his deputy the Imam would answer the demands and questions of the Shi’ah. After Uthman ibn Sa’id, his son Muhammad ibn Uthman Umari was appointed the deputy of the Imam. After the death of Muhammad ibn Uthman, Abu’l Qasim Husayn ibn Ruh Nawbakhti was the special deputy, and after his death Ali ibn Muhammad Simmari was chosen for this task.

A few days before the death of Ali ibn Muhammad Simmari in 329/939 an order was issued by the Imam stating that in six days Ali ibn Muhammad Simmari would die. Henceforth the special deputation of the Imam would come to an end and the major occultation (ghaybat-i kubra) would begin and would continue until the day God grants permission to the Imam to manifest himself. The occultation of the twelfth Imam is, therefore, divided into two parts: the first, the minor occultation (ghaybat-i-sughra) which began in 260/872 and ended in 329/939, lasting about seventy years; the second, the major occultation which commenced in 329/939 and will continue as long as God wills it. In a hadith upon whose authenticity everyone agrees, the Holy Prophet (sawas) has said, “If there were to remain in the life of the world but one day, Allah would prolong that day until He sends in it a man from my community and my household. His name will be the same as my name. He will fill the earth with-equity and justice as it was filled with oppression and tyranny.”

On the Appearance of the Mahdi

In the discussion on prophecy and the Imamate it was indicated that as a result of the law of general guidance which governs all of creation, man is of necessity endowed with the power of receiving revelation through prophecy, which directs him toward the perfection of the human norm and the well-being of the human species. Obviously, if this perfection and happiness were not possible for man, whose life possesses a social aspect, the very fact that he is endowed with this power would be meaningless and futile. But there is no futility in creation. In other words, ever since he has inhabited the earth, man has had the wish to lead a social life filled with happiness in its true sense and has striven toward this end. If such a wish were not to have an objective existence it would never have been imprinted upon man’s inner nature, in the same way that if there were no food there would have been no hunger. Or if there were to be no water there would be no thirst and if there were to be no reproduction there would have been no sexual attraction between the sexes. Therefore, by reason of inner necessity and determination, the future will see a day when human society will be replete with justice and when all will live in peace and tranquillity, when human beings will be fully possessed of virtue and perfection. The establishment of such a condition will occur through human hands but with Divine succour. And the leader of such a society, who will be the saviour of man, is called in the language of the hadith, the Mahdi.

In the different religions that govern the world such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Islam there are references to a person who will come as the saviour of mankind. These religions have usually given happy tidings of his coming, although there are naturally certain differences in detail that can be discerned when these teachings are compared carefully. The hadith of the Holy Prophet (sawas) upon which all Muslims agree, “The Mahdi is of my progeny,” refers to this same truth. There are numerous hadiths cited in Sunni and Shi’ite sources from the Holy Prophet (sawas) and the Imams concerning the appearance of the Mahdi, such as that he is of the progeny of the Prophet (sawas) and that his appearance will enable human society to reach true perfection and the full realisation of spiritual life. In addition, there are numerous other traditions concerning the fact that the Mahdi is the son of the eleventh Imam, Hasan al-‘Askari. They agree that after being born and undergoing a long occultation the Mahdi will appear again, filling with justice the world that has been corrupted by injustice and iniquity.

As an example, Ali ibn Musa al-Rida (the eighth Imam) has said, in the course of a hadith, “The Imam after me is my son, Muhammad, and after him his son Ali, and after Ali his son, Hasan, and after Hasan his son H. Hujjat al-Qa’im, who is awaited during his occultation and obeyed during his manifestation. If there remain from the life of the world but a single day, Allah will extend that day until he becomes manifest, and fill the world with justice in the same way that it had been filled with iniquity. But when? As for news of the ‘hour,’ verily my father told me, having heard it from his father who heard it from his father who heard it from his ancestors who heard it from Ali, that it was asked of the Holy Prophet (sawas), ‘Oh Prophet (sawas) of God, when will the “support” (qa’im) who is from thy family appear?’ He said, ‘His case is like that of the Hour (of the Resurrection). “He alone will manifest it at its proper time. It is heavy in the heavens and the earth. It cometh not to you save unawares” (Quran, VII, 187).102
Saqr ibn Abi Dulaf said, “I heard from Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ali al-Rida [the ninth Imam] who said, ‘The Imam after me is my son, Ali; his command is my command; his word is my word; to obey him is to obey me. The Imam after him is his son, Hasan. His command is the command of his father; his word is the word of his father; to obey him is to obey his father.’ After these words the Imam remained silent. I said to him, ‘Oh son of the Prophet (sawas), you will be the Imam after Hasan?’ The Imam cried hard, then said, ‘Verily after Hasan his son is the awaited Imam who is “al-qa’im bi’l-haqq” (He who is supported by the Truth).’ ”
Musa ibn Ja’far Baghdadi said, “I heard from the Imam Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn Ali [the eleventh Imam] who said, ‘I see that after me differences will appear among you concerning the Imam after me. Whoso accepts the Imams after the Prophet (sawas) of God but denies my son is like the person who accepts all the prophets but denies the prophethood of Muhammad, the Prophet (sawas) of God, upon whom be peace and blessing. And whoso denies [Muhammad] the Prophet (sawas) of God is like one who has denied all the prophets of God, for to obey the last of us is like obeying the first and to deny the last of us is like denying the first. But beware ! Verily for my son there is an occultation during which all people will fall into doubt except those whom Allah protects.”

The opponents of The Followers of Ahlu Bayt protest that according to the beliefs of this school the Hidden Imam should by now be nearly twelve centuries old, whereas this is impossible for any human being. In answer it must be said that the protest is based only on the unlikelihood of such an occurrence, not its impossibility. Of course such a long lifetime or a life of a longer period is unlikely. But those who study the hadiths of the Holy Prophet (sawas) and the Imams will see that they refer to this life as one possessing miraculous qualities.

Miracles are certainly not impossible nor can they be negated through scientific arguments. It can never be proved that the causes and agents that are functioning in the world are solely those that we see and know and that other causes which we do not know or whose effects and actions we have not seen nor understood do not exist. It is in this way possible that in one or several members of mankind there can be operating certain causes and agents which bestow upon them a very long life of a thousand or several thousand years. Medicine has not even lost hope of discovering a way to achieve very long life spans. In any case such protests from “peoples of the Book” such as Jews, Christians and Muslims are most strange for they accept the miracles of the prophets of God according to their own sacred scriptures.

. The opponents of The Followers of Ahlu Bayt also protest that, they considers the Imam necessary in order to expound the injunctions and verities of religion and to guide the people, the occultation of the Imam is the negation of this very purpose, for an Imam in occultation who cannot be reached by mankind cannot be in any way beneficial or effective. The opponents say that if God wills to bring forth an Imam to reform mankind He is able to create him at the necessary moment and does not need to create him thousands of years earlier. In answer it must be said that such people have not really understood the meaning of the Imam, for in the discussion on the Imamate it became clear that the duty of the Imam is not only the formal explanation of the religious sciences and exoteric guidance of the people. In the same way that he has the duty of guiding men outwardly, the Imam also bears the function of walayat and the esoteric guidance of men. It is he who directs man’s spiritual life and orients the inner aspect of human action toward God: Clearly, his physical presence or absence has no effect in this matter. The Imam watches over men inwardly and is in communion with the soul and spirit of men even if he be hidden from their physical eyes. His existence is always necessary even if the time has not as yet arrived for his outward appearance and the universal reconstruction that he is to bring about.


Ghaibat-us-Sughra means ‘the minor concealment.’ Its period was about 70 years. It began in 260 A.H. when Imam al-Mahdi (a.s) first went into concealment, and ended in 328 A.H.

During Ghaibut-us-Sughra, the Imam appointed some agents to represent him and the people. The Imam had four agents. After the death of the fourth agent, the Imam went into major concealment (Ghaibut-ul-Kubra). This was on the 10th Shawal 329 A.H.

The Signs Heralding the Reappearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a.s)

Prophet Muhammed (s.a.w.) has said: “Even if the entire duration of the world’s existence has already been exhausted and only one day is left before Doomsday, Allah will expand that day to such length of time as to accommodate the kingdom of a person from my Ahlul-Bayt who will be called by name. He will fill out the earth with and justice as it will have been full of injustice and tyranny (by then)”

From this Hadith, it is clear to every Muslim that the twelfth Imam will reappear when this world is full of sins and injustice.

There are many signs mentioned by the Masumeen (a.s) on the reappearance of the 12th Imam. It is reported in Biharul Anwar that after the last pilgrimage the Prophet made, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) stood near the Kaaba, and called his people to listen to him. The Prophet said: “listen to me carefully so that you transmit these words of mine to those who are absent today.” The Prophet began, “My people, a time will come when kings and rulers will be tyrannical.” The Prophet also said that the payment of Zakat will be stopped.

According to the Masumeen (a.s), Muslim countries will seek aid from non Muslim countries. This is already evident in a number of Muslim countries. Another prediction that is come true is that 60 impostors will claim to be Prophets. By their attractiveness, their persuasion, and their personality, they will misguide the people. 58 false Prophets have already emerged since the days of the Prophet (s.a.w.). We have only two more to witness.

It is reported in Qayamat-e-Sughra citing “Oqdatud-Durr” that Hazrat Amir (A.S) has said that the Mahdi will not appear until one-third of the world population will die by being killed and one-third will die as a result of epidemics.

The Last Signs Heralding the Appearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a.s)

There is a Hadith from Imam Muhammed Baqir (a.s) that for three or seven consecutive days, one will see reddish yellow fire raging in the East.

Sufiani will emerge in Palestine, where he will start a revolt in the month of Rajab. He will be an uncompassionate rebel and his rule will last for eight consecutive months. He will conquer and rule Egypt for four consecutive months. Sufiani will conquer Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Jordan, and Syria. Sufiani has been specifically described by Aimma A.S. as an ugly, blistered, green-eyed, cross-eyed person who will be an enemy of the friends of the Ahlul-Bait. Imam Ali (a.s) has said that Sufiani’s hatred of the devotees of the Ahlul-Bait will be such that any person named Ali, Fatema, Hassan, Hussein, Zainab, Ruquaiya will be arrested and beheaded straight away without further investigations. Sufiani will rip the Mimber of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.). The holy house of the Prophet which contains his grave will be pulled and used as a stable. Horses will be tied in that Holy place.

Sufiani will then decide to attack Makka. His purpose would be to demolish the Holy Kaaba and kill the entire population of Makka. Sufiani’s army will set out via Baghdad but, as Allah would have it, when they get between Medina and Makka, in the desert of Baida, suddenly one night they will hear a voice from the sky which will say, “O Baida eat up the entire army of Sufiani.” It is said that the entire army numbering 100,000 persons will be swallowed up by the earth, except for two. The two who will be spared will suddenly encounter an angel. He will slap both of them turning their faces right round, looking behind instead of front. And that will be the time when Imam al-Mahdi (a.s) will already have reappeared in Makka. The Imam will establish his authority in the Holy Mosque at Makka in the Haram. The angel will then order one of them calling him Bashir. “O Bashir, go straight to Makka, into the Haram and inform the Imam that Sufiani’s army has been swallowed up by the land. The other called Nazir will be ordered to go to Sufiani and tell him that the Imam has already appeared. He should proceed straight to Makka and declare allegiance to him.

Sufiani will prepare to attack the Imam but will not have enough courage. The Imam will catch Sufiani in Jerusalem and will kill him.

Imam Ali (a.s) has said that nine definite signs will precede the emergence of Hazrat Mahdi (a.s). These nine signs are:

Dajaal will emerge. A loud voice will be heard from the sky. Sufiani will appear and wage a fierce war. The army of Sufiani will be swallowed by a sudden opening of the land between Makka and Medina in the desert of Baida. A revered wise saint will be murdered in Makka. (This saint is to be a Hashimite descent.) A Seyyid descendant of Imam Hassan (a.s) will emerge with his army. The army of Seyyid-e-Hassan and an image of a man will appear in the sky opposite the sun. There will be two eclipses in the holy month of Ramadhan contrary to the normal order and calculation and the eclipse of the moon. On three occasions a loud voice from the sky will be heard in the holy month of Ramadhan.

The Reappearance

Hazrat Isa (Jesus), Hazrat Khizr, Hazrat Ilias, and Hazrat Idris (a.s) will give allegiance to the Imam when he re-appears. Also Jibrael will announce 313 companions of the Imam. These 313 companions will be people of eminent piety, great knowledge and absolutely steadfast in their determination and faith towards the Imam. Another 1000 people will be in the army of the Imam. These people will fight battles and kill enemies like Dajal, who will appear from India. Dajal will have the musical tunes with him. Then the Imam will lead the prayers, Hazrat Isa (a.s) will be behind him.

Let us all pray to Almighty Allah for the reappearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a.s).


Name: Al Hasan bin Ali (a.s.)

MotherUmmul Walad – Susan.

Kunniyat (Patronymic): Abu Muhammad.

Laqab (Title): Al Askari.

Birth: He was born at Samarrah in the year 232 A.H.

Martyrdom: He was poisoned in 260 A.H. at Samarrah and is buried there.


His name is al-Hasan, Abu Muhammad. Being a resident of “Asgar a suburb of Samarra”, he is titled al-askari. His father was Imam “Ali An-Naqi (A.S.) and his mother was Salil Khatun, an ideal woman in piety, worship, chastity and generosity. He was born in Medina on the tenth of Rabi” al-Akhir, 232 A.H. (December 4, 846 AD).

Upbringing and Instruction

He lived under the care of his respected father upto the age of 11. When his father had to leave for Samarra” he was to accompany him and thus share the hardships of the journey with the family. At Samarra”, he passed his time with his father either in imprisonment or in partial freedom. He had, however, the chance to benefit from his father”s teaching and instruction.


His father died in 254. A.H. (868 AD) when he was twenty-two. Four months before his death, the father declared his son to be his successor and executor of his will, asking his followers to bear witness to the fact. Thus the responsibilities of Imamate were vested upon him which he fulfilled even in the face of great difficulties and hostile environment.

In the early days of his lmamate, Al-Mu”tassam Al-“Abbasi was the caliph. When the latter was deposed, he was succeeded by al-Muhtadi. After his brief reign of only eleven months and one week, al-Mu”tamad came to the throne. During their regimes, Imam Hasan al-askari (A.S.) did not enjoy peace at all. Although the Abbaside dynasty was involved in constant complications and disorders, each and every king thought it necessary to keep the Imam (A.S.) imprisoned.

One of the Holy Prophet”s traditions ran that the Prophet (S.A.W) would be succeeded by twelve soccessors, the last of whom would be the Mahdi, Qa”im “Al-Muhammad (A.S.). The “Abbasides knew well that the true successors of the Prophet (S.A.W) were these very Imams. AI-Hasan (A.S.) being the eleventh, his son would surely be the 12th or the last. They, tried to put an end to his life in such a way, that it would ensure there would be nobody to succeed him. As the simple confinement inflicted on Imam “Ali an-Naqi (A.S.) was considered inadequate for Imam Hasan al-“askari (A.S.), so he was imprisoned, away from his family. No doubt the revolutionary intervals between two regimes gave him brief periods of freedom. Yet as soon as the new king came to the throne, he followed his predecessor”s policy and imprisoned the Imam again. The Imam”s brief life therefore was mostly spent inside dungeon cells.

Appointement of Deputies

Under all circumstances, the Imams carried out their duties of guiding the people. Imam Hasan Al-“askari was subjected to numerous restrictions,and those who sought to learn the teachings of AhI al-Bayt (A.S.) and their Shi”ah point of view could not reach him. In order to solve this problem, the Imam appointed certain confidants as his deputies in view of their knowledge of jurisprudence. These persons satisfied the curiosity of inquirers as much as they could. But if they could not solve certain theological problems, they would keep them pending the acquisition of their solutions from the Imam (A.S.) whenever they got the opportunity to see him. Of course the visit to the Imam (A.S.) by a few individuals could be allowed by the government but certainly not by groups who wished to see the Imam (A.S.) on a regular basis.

The Khums (1/5 of total savings), which was being paid to the Imams (A.S.) by the believers who cherished these Imams and regarded them as representatives of the Divine Law was spent by these sacred saints on religious matters, and to sustain the Prophet”s descendants. This Khums was secretly collected by these deputies, who spent it according to the directives of the Imam. They accordingly were in constant danger of being identified as such by the governments’ secret intelligence service. In order to divert this danger, Uthman ibn Sa”id and his son Abu Ja”far Muhammad, two prominent deputies of the Imam (A.S.) in the capital Baghdad, ran a big shop trading in oils. This provided them with free contact with the concerned people. It was thus that even under the very thumb of the tyrant regime that those devotees managed to run the system of the Divine law unsuspected.

Character and Virtues

Imam Hasan Al-“askari (A.S.) was one of that illustrious series of the immaculate infallible each member of whom displayed the moral excellence of human perfection. He was peerless in knowledge, forbearance, forgiveness, generosity, sacrifice and piety. Whenever Al-Mu”tamad asked anybody about his captive Imam Hasan al-“askari (A.S.), he was told that the Imam fasted during the day and worshipped during the night, and that his tongue uttered no word but remembrance of his creator. During the brief periods of freedom and stay at home, people approached him hoping to avail from his benevolence, and they went back well rewarded. Once when the “Abbaside caliph asked Ahmed ibn “Abd Allah ibn khaqan, his Minister for Charities (awqaf), about the descendants of Imam “Ali (A.S.), he reported: “I do not know anybody among them who is more distinguished than Hasan al-“askari. None can surpass him in dignity, knowledge, piety and abstinence, nor can anybody match him in the point of nobleness majestic grandeur, modesty and honesty”.

As Center of Learning

Imam Hasan al-“askari (A.S.) had a brief span of life, only twenty-eight years, but even in this short period, which was furled by a chain of troubles and tribulations, several high ranking scholars benefited from his ocean of knowledge. He also stemmed the flood of atheism and disbelief, which ensued, from the philosophers of that age, winning conspicuous success over them. One of those was Ishaq al-Kindi. He was writing a book on what he called “self-contradictions” in the Holy Qur”an. When the news reached the Imam (A.S.), he waited for an opportunity to refute and rebut him. By chance, some of Ishaq”s students came to him. The Imam asked them: “Is there anyone among you who can stop Ishaq from wasting his time in this useless effort fighting the Holy Qur”an?” The students said: “Sir, we are his students: how can we object to his teaching?” The Imam urged that they could at least convey to their teacher what he had to tell them. They replied that they would be ready to cooperate as much as they could in that respect.

The Imam (A.S.) then recited a few verses from the Holy Qur”an, which the philosopher thought as contradictory of one another. He then explained to them thus: “Your teacher thinks that some of the words in these verses have only one meaning. But according to the Arabic language, these words have other meanings too which, when taken into consideration, indicate no contradiction in he overall meaning. Thus, your teacher is not justified for basing his objections and claim of contradictions on the premises of the “wrong meaning” he himself selects for such verses”. He then put up some examples of such words before them so clearly that the students conceived the whole discussion and the precedents of more than one meaning.

When these students visited Ishaq al-Kindi and after routine talk, reproduced the disputed points, he was surprised. He was a fair-minded scholar and he listened to his students” explanations. Then he said: “What you have argued is beyond your capacity: tell me truly who has taught you these points?” The students said that it was their own reflection, but when he insisted that they could never have conceived those points, they admitted that, it was explained to them by Abu Muhammad Imam Hasan al-askari (A.S.). The instructor said: “Yes: this level of knowledge is the heritage of that House and only that House”. Then he asked the students to set fire to all such works of his.

Imam Hasan al-askari (A.S.) was a reliable authority for traditionalists who had recorded several traditions in their collections on his authority. One tradition about drinking runs thus: “The wine drinking is like an idolater”. It has been recorded by Ibn al-Jawzi in his book “Tahrim al-Khamr” (prohibition of wine drinking) with continuous chain of references tracing its narrators. Abu Na”im Fadl ibn Waki states that the tradition is true as it has been narrated by his companions such as Ibn “Abbas, Abu Hyrayra, Anas, AbdAllah ibn Awf al-Aslami and others.

Unfortunately, these storehouses of knowledge are not available.

Imam Al-Hasan al-“askari, peace be on him, said:

Generosity has a limit, when crossed becomes extravagance; caution has a limit when crossed becomes cowardice; thriftiness has a limit, when crossed becomes miserliness; courage has a limit, when crossed becomes fool-hardiness. Let this moral lesson suffice: refrain from doing anything which you would disapprove of if done by someone else.

A Part of Imam Hasan Al-askari’s Commandments to His Shia

Let piety be your provision, patience be your garment, and buy hardship in the path of Allah. Be true in your speech, trustworthy in performing your deeds, prolong your sajdah (prostration), deal with others with best behavior, and treat your neighbor amicably. Perform your prayers even with those whom you think to be your opposition; attend their funeral ceremonies, visit their sick, and give them their rights. Verily I tell you that whosoever is honest and has good behavior in the eyes of others, he is the pious Shia whom I will be proud of. Therefore, fear Allah, be as adornment on behalf of us and be not as shame that defames our name. This is the only way by which others shall be attracted toward us (the Ahlul Bayt of the Holy Prophet s.w.)